MIRANDA V. ARIZONA- decided June 3, 1966

 

 

Case Basics

Docket No.: 

759

Petitioner: 

Miranda

Respondent: 

Arizona

Consolidation: 

California v. Stewart, No. 584

Vignera v. New York, No. 760

Westover v. United States, No. 761

Decided By: 

Warren Court (1965-1967)

Opinion: 

384 U.S. 436 (1966)

Argued: 

February 28-March 2, 1966

Decided: 

Monday, June 13, 1966

Issues: 

Criminal Procedure, Miranda Warnings

Categories: 

right to counsel, self-incrimination, fifth amendment, criminal

 

Facts of the Case: 

The Court was called upon to consider the constitutionality of a number of instances, ruled on jointly, in which defendants were questioned "while in custody or otherwise deprived of [their] freedom in any significant way." In Vignera v. New York, the petitioner was questioned by police, made oral admissions, and signed an inculpatory statement all without being notified of his right to counsel. Similarly, in Westover v. United States, the petitioner was arrested by the FBI, interrogated, and made to sign statements without being notified of his right to counsel. Lastly, in California v. Stewart, local police held and interrogated the defendant for five days without notification of his right to counsel. In all these cases, suspects were questioned by police officers, detectives, or prosecuting attorneys in rooms that cut them off from the outside world. In none of the cases were suspects given warnings of their rights at the outset of their interrogation.

Question: 

Does the police practice of interrogating individuals without notifiying them of their right to counsel and their protection against self-incrimination violate the Fifth Amendment?

Conclusion: 

The Court held that prosecutors could not use statements stemming from custodial interrogation of defendants unless they demonstrated the use of procedural safeguards "effective to secure the privilege against self-incrimination." The Court noted that "the modern practice of in-custody interrogation is psychologically rather than physically oriented" and that "the blood of the accused is not the only hallmark of an unconstitutional inquisition." The Court specifically outlined the necessary aspects of police warnings to suspects, including warnings of the right to remain silent and the right to have counsel present during interrogations.

Decisions

Decision: 5 votes for Miranda, 4 vote(s) against
Legal provision: Self-Incrimination

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Wrote the majority opinion

Warren

Voted with the majority

Black

Voted with the majority

Douglas

Wrote a dissent

Clark

Wrote a dissent, joined White's dissent

Harlan

Voted with the majority

Brennan

Voted with the minority, joined Harlan's dissent, joined White's dissent

Stewart

Wrote a dissent, joined Harlan's dissent

White

Voted with the majority

Fortas

Full Opinion by Justice Earl Warren